Condominium Warranties - Express and Implied - Rhode Island

Q. What is a Warranty of Quality relating to condominiums?

A warranty of quality is a guarantee that the quality of a condominium being sold is as represented or promised.

Q. What is an Express Warranty of Quality relating to condominiums?

An express warranty of quality is a warranty of quality that is created by the overt actions of the seller of the condominium unit.

Q. How is an Express Warranty of Quality created?

Express warranties are representations made by any seller of a condominium unit to a buyer of a unit, if relied upon by the buyer, may be created in the following manner:

1. Writing

Any written or printed affirmation of fact or promise relating to a unit, its use, or associated rights, area improvements to the condominium that would directly benefit the unit, or the right to use or have the benefit of facilities not located in the condominium, creates an express warranty that the unit and related rights and uses will conform to the affirmation or promise; (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.13(a)(1))

2. Model

Any model or description of the physical characteristics of the condominium, including plans and specifications of or for improvements, creates a warranty that the condominium will substantially conform to the model or description; and (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.13(a)(2))

3. Description

Any description of the quantity or extent of the real estate of the condominium, including plats or surveys, creates an express warranty that the condominium will conform to the description, subject to customary tolerances. (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.13(a)(3))

Note however...

Lawful use -

Any provision (in the form of a writing, model, or a description) that a buyer may put a unit to a specified use is an express warranty that the specified use is lawful. (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.13(a)(4))

Formal words -

Formal words such as "warranty" or "guarantee" are NOT required to create an express warranty of quality. (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.13 (b))

Specific intention -

A specific intention to make a warranty is not necessary to create an express warranty of quality. (Id.)

Mere opinion

A statement purporting to be merely an opinion of the real estate or its value does not create an express warranty of quality. (34-36.1-4.13 (b))

Previous Sellers

Any conveyance of a condominium unit transfers to the purchaser all express warranties of quality made by previous sellers. In other words the warranty is transferable. (34-36.1-4.13 (c))

Q. What is an Implied Warranty of Quality?

A warranty of quality that arises by operation of law based on the circumstances related to the sale of the condominium and not based on any express promise by the seller.

Q. How is an Implied Warranty created?

In the case of the declarant and any person in the business of selling real estate for his or her own account, Warranties of quality will be implied as follows:

1. A condominium unit will be in at least as good condition at the earlier of the time of the conveyance or delivery of possession as it was at the time of contracting, reasonable wear and tear excepted. (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.14(a))

2. A unit and the common elements are suitable for the ordinary uses of real estate of its type and that any improvements made before the creation of the condominium, will be:

a. Free from defective materials; and

b. Built in accordance with applicable law, according to sound engineering and construction standards, and in a workmanlike manner. (34-36.1-4.14(b))

3. Residential Units - the existing use does not violate applicable law at the earlier of the time of conveyance or delivery of possession. (See R.I.G.L. 34-36.1-4.14(c))

Good Job Training Prospects in HVACR - Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

What career path combines high-tech computers, mechanical engineering, and construction, and has the goal of making people safe and comfortable? Heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration - or HVACR.

This dynamic field offers the opportunity to use many different skills to achieve a result that everyone appreciates: comfort and security for people in a wide range of settings including workers on the job, patients in hospitals, guests in hotels, and families at home.

Technology has changed the HVACR industry. Gone are the days when a mechanical furnace in the basement provided heat and an air conditioner in the window provided cooling. Today, computer-controlled heating and air conditioning systems regulate the temperature, humidity, and the overall air quality in residential, commercial, industrial, and other buildings. Refrigeration systems, which use related technology, make it possible to store and transport food and other perishable items.

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration technicians install, maintain, and repair these increasingly complex systems. HVACR technicians are often highly specialized. They may focus on heating systems, air conditioning, or refrigeration, and specialize in either installation or maintenance and repair. Some are skilled in one type of equipment such as solar panels, hydronics (water-based heating systems), or commercial refrigeration.

Technicians may also sell service contracts to their clients. Service contracts provide for regular maintenance of the heating and cooling systems, and help to reduce the seasonal fluctuations of this type of work.

What kind of training do HVACR technicians need? According to the U.S. Government Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Because of the increasing sophistication of heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems, employers prefer to hire those who have completed technical school training or a formal apprenticeship."

Accredited career schools offer HVACR training. Programs can last between six months and two years, and can result in a certificate or associate degree. Many people continue their education and earn a bachelor's or even master's degree in engineering or computer science.

The goal of most training programs is to prepare the student for professional certification. National accrediting bodies include HVAC Excellence, the National Center for Construction Education and Research, and the Partnership for Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Accreditation. In addition, HVACR technicians are required to be licensed by many states and localities. Requirements for licensure vary greatly, but states or localities that grant licenses require the applicant to pass a test.

How about employment prospects? The news is good! According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in the current decade 2008-2018, job prospects for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers are expected to be excellent, particularly for those who have completed training from an accredited technical school or a formal apprenticeship.

Where are areas of possible employment growth? Here are a few:

• Replacement of old HVACR systems with environmentally friendly systems. For example, replacing central air conditioning units that are more than 12 years old with EnergyStar qualified models can cut cooling costs by thirty percent.
• Servicing HVACR systems from the recent building boom..
• The resurgence of new construction in growing areas of the country.
• The increased complexity of new systems that require more servicing. Sophisticated home, office, and industrial systems use computer controllers and advanced technologies such as solar and heat transfer.
• Steady rate of retirement by older HVACR technicians.

Job opportunities exist for people with the right training. If a career in HVACR sounds right for you, then check out career training programs by going online to a reputable college directory website. You can compare programs, check out flexible schedules, and get information about financial aid and career services. Then, when you have received information and you've narrowed your choices to the top two or three, make your application. In less time than you think you could be on your way to a rewarding new career.

Concerned With Construction Costs? Hire a Quantity Surveyor

If you are concerned about the construction costs on a building project in the UK, consider hiring a quantity surveyor Yorkshire professional. When you are concerned about the cost of materials and the contracts associated with these material vendors and subcontractors, this type of surveyor can work with your construction team to ensure you keep costs low while ensuring you have enough materials to avoid construction setbacks.

Defining the Role

Generally, when you hire a quantity surveyor, Yorkshire professional, you can expect someone who has a broad set of skills which are applied to the contracts and costs on building projects. This UK surveying professional may use a variety of methods to do their job including value management, feasibility studies, cost planning, cost and profit analysis, estimation of costs and materials forecasting. They even involve themselves in resolving disputes with subcontractors and vendors who handle the materials and supplies.

This type of surveyor integrates well with the entire construction team including you, the client as well as the architect of the building project and the various engineers handling a variety of duties including electrical, plumbing, mechanical and physical aspects of design. Quantity surveying professionals are invaluable when drafting contracts as well as interpreting them. These skills can help when settling disputes with subcontractors and other outsiders on the building project as well as measure effectiveness of construction progress.

Quantity surveying encompasses the management of building costs by precise measurements. These can be done by studying the blueprints and other drawings prepared by the architects, engineers and designers. In addition, the surveyor applies their specialised knowledge of current market prices of labor, general work, materials and equipment to evaluate project progress. Maximising the use of the materials and ordering materials to arrive based on building schedules is essential to success, particularly when trying to follow a specific timeline.

Auditing of current contracts as well as the paperwork involved is another crucial duty. A surveyor specialising in quantity surveying should also be able to audit invoices and past payments to ensure the construction company is not overpaying for materials and services. Adapting current building schedules may be necessary based on materials and cost forecasting.

Contract negotiations with subcontractors and vendors are sometimes within the realm of this type of surveyor as well. Basically, anything having to do with the cost of the construction project is fair game. For your UK construction needs, hire a quantity surveyor, Yorkshire professional.

The Beauty of Engineered Wood Floors

Traditional wood floors are increasingly giving way to engineered products due to improved product performance and reduced cost. With some advanced processes you can have an engineered wood floor that truly looks and lasts like solid wood and can be installed where solid wood is impractical. Let's review the limitations of solid wood products and the benefits of our engineered counterparts.

Shrink or Swell: The Properties of Wood

Most wood cells have a long tubular shape, are typically vertical in the main stem of a tree, and have a significantly smaller radius than length. Many of woods' structural properties derive from cellulose molecules in the cell wall that attract and chemically bind water. This 'bound' water in the cell wall equilibrates with the relative humidity of the atmosphere around the wood causing the wood to shrink or swell over some time, usually a seasonal change.

If you compare the rate of expansion or contraction across the face of a board to the length change it is typically 50 to 100 times greater across the face. Wood experiences much less movement along the direction of the cellulose molecules. Wood floor installers allow for movement across a floor by leaving expansion gaps next to walls. Traditionally, the use of solid wood flooring directly over concrete has been avoided because of moisture issues.

Shrinking and swelling in engineered wood products is greatly reduced by gluing layers together with the alternate layers turned ninety degrees. The shrink/swell in cross ply construction is dominated by the low expansion coefficient in the direction of the cellulose molecules, resulting in a reduction of the shrink/swell across the face by a factor ranging from 10 to 20 times - far less than solid wood.

The Facts About Engineered Wood Floors

Engineered wood flooring offers the advantage of using a smaller amount of high quality or rare wood for the face. Some of the lesser quality-engineered flooring contains smaller pieces that are not suitable for use in solid flooring, resulting in a chopped up look. However, a high quality engineered flooring can be produced from full size boards and maintain the same aesthetically pleasing look as a traditional floor. Ask for a product with certified low formaldehyde emissions from the glues and backer.

A wear layer comparable to a solid wood floor can be achieved using a precision 'frame' saw instead of slicing or peeling the faces. A thicker wear layer requires even more attention to the details of the profile. One example is the location of the tongue and groove; setting them too high on a product with a thick wear layer increases the risk that the flooring will not remain flat.

Choose Wisely... Choose Wood

Wood floors are durable and easy to live with. The direct benefit of adding value to the home is a recognized bonus. Modern finishes require little maintenance and can be cleaned without the use of harsh chemicals, furthering woods' value as being environmentally sound or 'green' friendly. The long service life reduces the amount of solid waste. And an important benefit for the homeowner; wood is hypoallergenic, thus avoids problems associated with some other floor coverings.

Gaining an Online Education in Construction

Pursuing an online education can be done in a number of fields including construction. Students can complete the basic coursework needed to enter into a career in this field through accredited schools and colleges online. Hands on training may be necessary depending on the desired career each individual student chooses to pursue. Online career preparation in construction can be completed at various levels of study in a number of specialized areas. Students can start by learning more about the options available to them prior to enrolling in an accredited online school or college.

Training is available at numerous levels of study, which will allow students to pursue the education they long for. Students can choose to train at the certificate level or degree level in the construction field.

  • Training can be completed at the certificate, associate, and bachelor degree levels.
  • Length of training will vary but may range from several months to four years.

With the option of receiving accredited online career training students can study for their desired career from the comfort of their own home. Some levels of training may require students to complete hands on training in order to receive all skills and knowledge necessary for employment.

Specific areas of construction may require students to learn various subjects. Online schools and colleges allow students to receive this training based on the specialized area of study they choose to pursue.

  • Training can be completed in carpentry, home inspection, electrician and energy trades, plumbing, and many other areas.
  • Possible careers for students who choose to specialize in these areas can include working as woodworkers, roofers, contractors, electricians, home inspectors, and many other professions.

By enrolling in an accredited online studies students can enter into the career of their dreams by completing all required training and coursework.

Students will need to complete a variety of studies in order to obtain the degree or certificate they desire. Specific areas of study will be based on the level of education and prospective career. Coursework may give students the chance to learn HVAC, framing, masonry, building materials, electrical circuits, equipment, construction methods, inspection standards, millwork, blueprints, and much more. Students may also have the opportunity to study engineering, building codes, safety, contract specifications, and many other related course subjects. Students who train in these areas will gain the knowledge and skills they need for a successful career in construction.

When looking to pursue a higher education, students should make sure the online school or college they choose is fully accredited. Only agencies such as the American Council for Construction Education ( ) are qualified to fully accredit online training programs that meet specific criteria, and provide students with the best quality education available. Students can research various online construction education programs prior to enrolling in order to ensure that they will provide the education desired. Requesting more information and choosing a program that fits your individual needs and goals will help you to be on your way to an exciting new career.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at

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